My Church and Others

A Summary of the Teachings of the Evangelical Lutheran Church As Distinguished From Those of Other Denominations

Sixth Edition

By John Theodore Mueller

PART I

Doctrine

l. OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES

WE BELIEVE (a) that the Holy Scriptures in contradistinction to all other writings in the world are the Word of God, because the holy writers wrote them not of their own accord, but by inspiration of the Holy Ghost: (b) that since the Holy Scriptures are the Word of God, no errors or contradictions of any kind are found in them, but they are throughout infallible truth; (c) that the Holy Scriptures are the only fountain from which all doctrine taught in the Church must be drawn, and the only infallible standard and rule by which all doctrines and teachings must be estimated.

a) 2 Tim. 3:16-17  All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.

2 Peter 1:21 For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man; but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.

[John 17:8  For I have given unto them the words which thou gavest me.]

[1  Co. 2:13 Which things also we speak, not in the words which man’s wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual.]

b) John 10:35b  The Scripture cannot be broken.

John 17:17  Sanctify them through Thy truth, Thy Word is truth.

c) Eph. 2:20   And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the chief Cornerstone.

I Pet. 4:11 If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God.

John 5:39  Search the Scriptures, for in them ye think ye have eternal life, and they are they which testify of Me.

WE REJECT as unscriptural the following teachings:

NOTE: Since a great many denomination today do not attach a great deal of importance to doctrine it is difficult to determine just what they profess.

1. That also the apocryphal books and the “traditions of the fathers” are the source and norm of faith;  Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church.   Deut. 4:2; Luke 16:27; John 8:31,32.  [Mark 7:13; Col. 2:8]

2. That also “new revelations” are the fountain and standard of faith: Modern Sectarian churches; Salvation Army, Mormons (revelations in the Book of Mormon), Quakers (revelations through the inner light of the Spirit), Shakers (special revelations of Ann Lee), Churches of the New Jerusalem (revelations of Swedenborg), Spiritists (new revelations from the spirit world), Christian Scientists (Mrs. Mary Baker G. Eddy’s “Science and Health”), Christian Cath. Church in Zion (or Dowieites), Heb. 1:1-2: Gal. 1:8; Matt. 28:19-20: 2 Tim. 3:15-17; Luke 16:31.

3. That the Holy Scriptures are the fountain and standard of faith only so far as they agree with reason: Unitarians, Universalists, Rationalists, Modernists, etc.  1 Cor. 1:21; Col 2:8; 2 Cor. 10:5; I Cor. 2:4-5,14. [I Tim. 6:20-21]

4. That the Holy Scriptures are not the Word of God, but merely contain the Word of God:  Unitarians, Rationalists, Quakers, modern Sectarian churches; [Modernists in many denominations]. Matt. 5:18-19, [1 Cor. 15:54 Greek: the word which is written].

5. That not all that is contained in the Scriptures is inspired, but that the holy writers were liable to error.  Unitarians, Rationalists, Spiritists, Churches of the New Jerusalem, [Congregational] Christian Church, modern Sectarian churches.  Heb. 4:12: John 12:48, Gal. 6:16; [Prov. 30:6; Matt. 4:4; 2 Pet. 1:16].

6. That the Holy Scriptures are incomplete: Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Shakers, Mormons; that they are obscure and require the interpretation of the Church [Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church], or of the inner light [Quakers, Mennonites]; or of Christian Science [Christian Scientists]; or of man’s reason [Christian Churches, Unitarians, Universalist, Arminians, Modernists]  Ps. 119:105,130; 2 Cor. 4:3-4; John 20:31; John 5:39; [Eph. 3:3-4; Ps. 19:8]

7. That the Holy Scriptures are in themselves without power to quicken and convert sinners: Quakers, Calvinistic Churches, Congregationalists, Presbyterians, Methodists, Campbellities [Disciples of Christ], Modernists. John 6:63; Rom. 1:16; James 1:21, John 17:20.

8. That the reading of the Holy Scriptures by the laity must be forbidden: Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church.  Matt. 23:13; 1 Thess. 5:27; John 5:39; 2 Tim. 3:15*

*NOTE : This principle still stands, though Roman priests, to meet Protestant competition, urge their people to read the Bible translated and annotated by the “Church.”

NOTE: Many of these false doctrines are taught also within other denominations. Our age is rationalistic, and only few churches today teach the doctrine of verbal and plenary inspiration.

II. OF THE NATURAL KNOWLEDGE OF GOD

WE BELIEVE (a) that all men have by nature a natural knowledge of God: (b) that this natural knowledge is obtained not only from God’s works in nature, but also from man’s own conscience since God has written the Law in his heart; (c) but that this natural knowledge is not sufficient to salvation.

a) Rom. 1:18-20.  For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness; because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God showed it unto them. For the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse.

b) Rom. 2:14-15.  For when the Gentiles, which have notthe law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these having not the law, are a law unto themselves, which show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the meanwhile accusing or else excusing one another.

c) Rom. 10:17  So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God.

John 17:3.  And this is life eternal, that they might know Thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom Thou hast sent.

Acts 4:12  Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.

Cf. Eph. 2:11-12: Rom. 16:25; 1 Cor. 1:18-30

WE REJECT as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That man by nature is without a natural knowledge of God: Unitarians, Mormons.  Acts 17:27; Ps. 94:9; Ps. 10:1-3

2.  That man can be saved through his natural knowledge, without the revealed knowledge of the Gospel: Quakers, Arminians, Unitarians, Universalists, Churches of the New Jerusalem, Salvation Army, Calvinistic Churches, Modernists,  John 1:18; John 17:3.

NOTE:  This error is very common, and it is spread also by Lodgery, whose slogan it is that anyone is saved who does as much good as he can.  Modern Liberalism has done much to spread this error.

III. OF GOD

WE BELIEVE (a) the sublime article of the Holy Trinity, that is, that the one true God is Father, Son and Holy Ghost, three distinct persons, of the same divine essence, equal in power, in eternity, and in majesty, because each person possesses the one divine essence entire; (b) that since this article of faith is fundamental, all teachers and denominations that deny the doctrine of the Holy Trinity are outside the Christian Church and have no hope of salvation.

a)  I Cor. 8, 4.  There is none other God but one.

Matt. 28, 19.  Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.

John 10,30.  I (Jesus) and My Father are one.

b)  I John 2, 23.  Whosoever denieth the Son, the same hath not the Father: but he that acknowledgeth the Son, hath the Father also.

This condemns Lodgery.

WE REJECT as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That God is a material being, and not a Spirit: Mormons, Seventh Day Adventists.  John 4, 24; (Isa. 57:15).

2.  That God is not the only eternal Being, but there are other eternal beings besides God: Unitarians, Mormons.  Ps. 90,2, Rom. 11,36, (John 1:1-3)

3.  That God does not know all things that will happen:  Unitarians.  Heb. 4, 13; Ps. 139,1-4

4.  That  God is not omnipresent:  Unitarians, Arminians, Mormons, Seventh Day Adventists. Acts 17,27.28; Isa. 6,3; (Ps. 139:7-13).

5.  That God is not Triune: Unitarians, Universalists, Churches of the New Jerusalem, Christian Church, Quakers, Mormons, Shakers, Seventh Day Adventists, Spiritists, Christian Scientists, Modernists.  (John 3:36; 5:23; I John 5:12).

6.  That the Son is not true and very God, of the same divine essence with the Father and the Holy Ghost:  Arminians, Unitarians, Universalists, Churches of the New Jerusalem, Quakers, Mormons, Shakers, Seventh Day Adventists, Spiritists, Russellites, Christians Scientists, Modernists, Lodgery.  John 10,30,

John 14,9; John 20,28; Rom. 9,5; I John 5,20; John 5,23; I John 2,23.

7.  That the Holy Ghost is not true and very God, of the same divine essence with the Father and Son:  Arminians, Unitarians, Universalists, Churches of the New Jerusalem, Campbellites, Quakers, Mormons, Shakers, Seventh Day Adventists, Spiritists, Christian Scientists, Modernists.  Acts 5, 3, 4; I Cor. 3, 16; 2 Cor. 13, 13.

8.  That the Holy Spirit does not proceed from the Son as well as from the Father.  Eastern Orthodox Church, Irvingites, Old Catholics, Moravian Brethren.  John 15, 26; Gal. 4, 6; John 16, 14, 15.

NOTE:  Modernists, or Liberalists, are rationalists, who do not believe the Bible, but follow their blind reason.  The Sectarian churches today are full of Modernists. Their errors are not modern, but very old.

IV.  OF THE ANGELS

WE BELIEVE (a) that the foremost among the invisible creatures are the angels; (b) that the good angels are holy spirits, already confirmed in their bliss, and of great  power, who praise God, carry out His commands, and serve mankind; (c)  that the evil angels are fallen spirits, forever rejected, who are the declared enemies of God and man, and endeavor to destroy the works of God.

a) Ps. 103, 20, 21.  Bless the Lord, ye His angels that excel in strength, that do His commands, hearkening unto the voice of His Word. Bless ye the Lord, all ye His hosts; ye ministers of His that do His pleasure.

b) Heb. 1, 14. Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation!

Matt. 25, 31. When the Son of man shall come in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then shall He sit upon the throne of His glory.

Ps. 91, 11,12.  For He shall give His angels charge over thee, to keep thee in all they ways. They shall bear thee up in their hands, lest thou dash thy foot against a stone.

c)  Jude 6.  And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, He hath reserved in everlasting chains, under darkness, unto the judgment of the great day.

Eph. 6, 12.  For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.

I Pet. 5, 8.  Be sober, be vigilant, because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That angels are spirits of departed men: Churches of the New Jerusalem, Spiritists.  John 8, 44; (Matt. 22:30 “as”).

2.  That the good angels are departed spirits that have risen to a higher plane of development, while the evil angels are unholy and unhappy departed spirits:  Mormons, Spiritists. Matt. 25, 41;  I Pet. 5, 8; Jude 6;  (2 Pet. 2:4; cp. Rev. 12:7-9).

3.  That the angels possess sex: Shakers, Mormons.  Matt. 22, 30.

4.  That the angels are the thoughts and communications of God to man:  Christian Science.  See passages above.

5.  That there is no personal devil:  Christian Scientists, Spiritists, Unitarians, Churches of the New Jerusalem,  Universalists.  See passages above.

NOTE:  All modernists deny the existence of a personal devil, and claim that the word “devil” simply stands for “evil.”

V.  OF CREATION

WE BELIEVE  (a) that God created heaven and earth in the manner and time recorded in the Holy Scriptures, namely, by His almighty Word and in six days;  (b) and that since man was not present when it pleased God to create the world, the only reliable information we have of this event is God’s own report which we have in the Bible.

(a and b)  Gen. 1, 1 In the beginning God created, the heaven and the earth.  Cf. Gen. 1, 31:: “The sixth day.” Ex. 20, 11:  “In six days.”

Heb. 11, 3. Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the Word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.

Ps. 115, 3.  But our God is in the heavens. He hath done whatsoever He hath pleased.

Col. 1, 16:  For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or power: all things were created by Him, and for Him.

(2 Peter 1:16  For we have not followed cunningly devised fables when we made known unto you the coming and power of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of His majesty.)

WE REJECT  as unscriptural every doctrine, by which the divine work of creation as revealed in Scripture is denied or limited, as this is done by all who teach that the world has evolved out of itself in immense periods of time:  Evolutionists.  Ps. 33, 6; John 1, 1-3; Ps. 148, 5.

NOTE:   Most Sectarian preachers today accept the pernicious error of evolution, though some favor theistic evolution. This, however, is as unscriptural as is atheistic Evolution.

VI.  OF MAN AND THE IMAGE OF GOD

WE BELIEVE that God created our first parents neither like brutes, nor morally neutral, nor merely capable of development, but in His own image, that is, in true knowledge of God and in perfect righteousness and holiness, and endowed with a truly scientific knowledge of nature.

Gen. 1, 26, 27.  And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness…So God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him.

Eph. 4, 24.  And that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness.

Col. 3, 10.  And have put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image of Him that created him.

WE REJECT as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That the image of God consists essentially in the free will of man and the the dominion of his reason over his desires; also that the original righteousness was not a part of the image of God, but an additional gift:  Roman Catholic Church.  Eph. 4, 24; Col. 3, 10.

2.  That the image of God does not consist in concreated righteousness and holiness, but in man’s dominion over the creatures of earth:  Roman Catholic Church, Unitarians, Arminians, Rationalists.  See passage above.

3.  That man originally had no concreated righteousness, but by his own power developed in himself the image of God.  Churches of the New Jerusalem.  See passage above.

4.  That Adam was indeed innocent, but not perfectly holy: Adventists. Gen. 1, 26, 27  See also passages above.

5.  That man was not created in the image of God, and that there is no essential difference between man and the brute:  Russellites, Evolutionsts, Modernists.  See passages quoted above.

6.  That the body of man became immortal only by special divine grace:  Roman Catholic Church. Gen. 2, 17.

7.  That the body of man was created mortal.  Unitarians, Arminians,  Rom. 5, 12: Rom. 6, 23.

8.  That not only the body, but also the soul of man was created mortal.  Seventh Day Adventists. Gen. 2, 17; Rom. 6, 23;  Matt. 10, 28.

9.  That man is truly immortal even after the fall:  Christian Scientist.  See passages above.

NOTE;  The image of God, in the proper sense of the term, consists in true knowledge of God, holiness, and righteousness.

VII.  OF SIN

WE BELIEVE (a) that sin entered into the world by the fall of our first parents;  (b) that by this fall not only our first parents, but also all their natural descendants have lost their original righteousness;  (c) that therefore all men are by nature dead in sin and children of wrath;  (d)  that men cannot, by any efforts of their own, or any good works, progress, or culture become reconciled to God and overcome death and damnation;  (e) but that all men are saved by grace through faith in Christ Jesus, the divine Redeemer of the world.

a)  Gen. 3, 1-7.  Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the Lord God had made. And he said unto the woman,  Yea, hath God said,  Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?  And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the tree of the garden:  but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden,  God hath said: Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.  And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die:  for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened; and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.

l.  I John  3, 8.  He that committeth sin is of the devil; for the devil sinneth from the beginning.

James 1, 13, 14.  Let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of God, for God cannot be tempted with evil, neither tempteth He any man but every man is tempted when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed.

(Romans 5:12  By one man sin entered into the world.)

b and c)  Eph. 2, 1-3  And you hath He quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sin, wherein in times past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience: among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

Gen. 8, 21.  The imagination of man’s heart is evil from his youth.

John 3: 5-7 Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh, is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again.

d)  Rom. 7, 18.  For I know that in me, (that is, in my flesh,), dwelleth no good thing: for to will is present with me; but how to perform that which is good I find not.

James 2, 10.  For whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all.

2 Cor. 3,5.  Not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think any thing, as of ourselves, but our sufficiency is of God.

(Psalm 130:3  If thou, Lord, shouldest mark iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand?)

e)  Rom. 3, 28. Therefore, we conclude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law.

Rom. 8, 1.  There is, therefore, now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.

Rom. 5, 16-18.  And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift: for the judgment was by one to condemnation, but the free gift is of many offences unto justification.  For if by one man’s offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace, and of the gift of righteousness, shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.  Therefore, as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all unto justification of life.

WE REJECT as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That God so created man that he had to sin: Calvinistic Churches.  Ps. 5, 5; John 3, 16; I John 2,16; (Deut. 32:4; Gen. 1:26-27; 5:1-3).

2.  That the sin of our first parents consisted in the transgression of the command of chastity: Shakers, Christian Israelites.  Gen. 3, 6.

3. That the Scriptural account of the fall of man is not an actual historical report by an allegory:  Church of the New Jerusalem, Modernists.  Rom 5, 12; I Cor. 15, 21, 22: I Cor. 11,3.

4.  That original sin is not the total depravity of the whole human nature, but only a weakening of the free will and the loss of the additional gifts of grace:  Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church.  John 3, 5, 6; Eph. 2: 1; Rom 3, 23.

5.  That there is no original sin, and that human nature has not been entirely corrupted and perverted by original sin:  Unitarians, Arminians, Churches of the New Jerusalem, Campbellites, Adventists, Modernists.  Rom 7, 18: Gen. 8, 21; Rom. 5, 12; (Ps. 14:1; Matt. 7:17-18; Eph. 4:22).

6.  That there is no sin in the true sense of the word:  Christian Scientists.  See passages above.

7.  That concupiscence, that is, all evil lusts and desires in the regenerate are not sin:  Roman Catholic Church. Rom. 7< 7; Gal. 5< 17; James 1, 15.

8. That Mary was not conceived and born in sin:
Roman Catholic Church.  John 3, 6; Job. 14, 4; Luke 1, 46-47.

9.  That on account of Adam’s sin man has not become subject to the wrath and condemnation of God:  Unitarians, Arminians, Mennonites, Quakers, Shakers, Mormons, Seventh Day Adventists, Universalist, Churches of the New Jerusalem, Modernists.  Eph. 2, 3; Gen. 2, 17; Rom. 5, 12.

10.  That some sins are in themselves venial while others are in themselves mortal:  Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox church, Socinians, Arminians,  James 2, 10; Gal. 3, 10; Matt. 5, 18.19; (Ezek. 18:20).

11.  That children are without actual sin:  Unitarians, Campbellites, Mormons, Adventists, free Will Baptists, Arminians, Mennonites, Modernists.  Gen. 6, 5; Ps. 58, 3; (51:5); Isa. 48,8.

12.  That  some sins are punished only temporally and not eternally:  Roman Catholic Church.  Deut. 27, 26; Gal.3, 10; Matt. 12, 36.

13.  That man in spite of the fall, has retained his free will and also some power to do good:  Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Arminians, Methodists, Evangelical Congregational, Moravians, Campbellites, Presbyterians, Mennonites, Free Will Baptist, Unitarians, Church of the New Jerusalem, Spiritists, Quakers, Shakers, Mormons, Seventh Day Adventists.  2 Cor. 3, 5; Eph. 2, 1; Rom. 3, 11. 12; (7:18).

NOTE:  Today the Scriptural doctrine of original sin is generally denied by modern Sectarian churches, which are thoroughly corrupted by rationalism.  Even some Fundamentalists deny this doctrine.

VIII.  OF THE ELECTION OF GRACE OR PREDESTINATION

WE BELIEVE (a) in an election of grace, or a predestination to salvation; but (b) we reject an election of wrath, or a predestination to damnation;  (c) we reject also every doctrine, by which it is claimed that not solely the grace of God and the merits of Christ are the cause of our eternal election unto salvation, but that God foresaw also in us something good which prompted Him to elect us (good works, correct conduct, (non-resistance), self-determination, persevering faith, etc.); (d) we believe that God does not desire the damnation of any one, but that His love to the sinful world is universal and that the redemption of Christ pertains to all men.

a)  Rom. 11, 5. 6.  Even so then at this present time also there is a remnant according to the election of grace.

Rom. 8, 28-30.  And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to His purpose.  For whom He did foreknow, He also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren.  Moreover, whom He did predestinate, them He also called:  and whom He called, them He also justified: and whom He justified them He also glorified.

Cf.  2 Pet. 3, 9; John 3, 16.

c)  Rom. 9, 11-12, 16.  (For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God, according to election might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth),  it was said unto her.  The elder shall serve the younger.  So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that showeth mercy.

2 Tim. 1,9  Who hath saved us, and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began.

Cf.  Rom. 8, 29. 30;  Eph. 1, 3-5

d)  John 3, 16. 17.  For God so loved the world, that he gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life. For God sent not His son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved.

Matt. 23, 37. O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, though that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!

Cf.  I Tim. 2, 4-6;  Acts 13, 46; Acts 7, 51.

WE REJECT as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That God’s saving grace is not universal, but pertains only to the elect:  Calvinistic Baptists, Calvinistic Methodist, etc.  Rom 11, 32: (3:19).  See passages above.

2.  That the election of grace depends to some extent upon the good conduct of man:  Eastern Orthodox Church, Campbellites, Free Will Baptists, Synergists, Arminians, Sectarian churches.  Rom. 11, 5. 6;  Eph. 1, 3-6;  2 Tim. 1, 9;  Rom. 9, 11f.

3.  That the election of grace is not from eternity but takes place in time:  Arminians, Methodists, Cumberland Presbyterians, Unitarians, Shakers, Salvation Army.  2 Tim. 1, 9; Rom. 9, 11: Eph. 1: 3, 5.  Also many Synergists.

4.  That there is no election of grace in the proper sense, since man himself determines his election and salvation: Churches of the New Jerusalem, Unitarians, Mormons,  Eph. 1, 3-6; 2 Thess. 2, 13; John 15, 16,  All Modernists in the various churches, (Arminians).

5.  That the election of grace was an absolute act of sovereign God and was decreed without consideration of Christ and His vicarious satisfaction for the sins of the world: Presbyterians, Congregational Christians, Calvinistic Baptists, Calvinistic Methodists, etc. Eph. 1, 3-6; 2 Tim. 1, 9.

6.  That the elect cannot altogether fall from grace or wholly lose their faith even in spite of the greatest sins: Presbyterians, Congregational Christians, Calvinistic Baptists, Calvinistic Methodist, etc. Ps. 51, 10-13; Matt. 26, 69f;  2 Sam. 12:1-13; Ps. 37, 24;  John 20, 25, 29.

7.  That the elect cannot be sure of their salvation in spite of their faith in Christ:  Roman Catholic Church.  Rom 8, 38. 39;  2 Tim. 1, 12;  Phil. 1, 6;  Luke 10, 20; I Thess. 1, 4;  I Pet. 5, 12;  2 Pet. 1, 10.

8.  That the wicked are lost not through their own sin and unbelief, but because of the absolute decree of God, by which He withheld from them His grace and mercy.  Calvinistic churches, Reformed Presbyterians, Calvinistic Baptists, Calvinistic Methodists, Congregational Christians, etc. Hosea 13, 9;  Matt. 23, 37;  Acts 7, 51;  Acts 13, 46; John 3, 19;  I Thess. 5, 9;  Luke 14, 16-24;  Gal. 5, 4; Ezek. 18, 26;  I Tim. 1, 19.

9.  Lastly, we reject every doctrine of Calvinism which denies universal grace, and every doctrine of synergism which denies salvation by grace alone.

I Tim. 2, 4:  2 Pet. 3, 9;  Tom. 4, 4.5;  Rom. 3, 20-28.

NOTE:  Today many rationalistic and modernistic churches still use the terms “deity of Christ,”  “atonement,” “salvation by faith,” & “election by grace,” etc.,  but they have changed their meaning so as to suit their rationalism.

IX.  OF CHRIST THE SON OF GOD

WE BELIEVE  that the Son of God assumed the human nature in the womb of the blessed Virgin Mary, so that there are two natures, the divine and the human, inseparably united in the one person, the one Christ, who is true God and true man, born of the Virgin Mary.

Rom. 9, 5  Whose are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed forever.

I Tim. 2, 5. 6.  For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus: who gave Himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time.

John 1, 14.  And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.

I John 5, 20.  And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know Him that is true and we are in Him that is true, even in His Son Jesus Christ.  This is the true God and eternal life. –Cf.John 20. 28, Jer. 23,6; John 5,23; Matt. 1.21; I Tim. 3,16; I Cor. 15,47.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That the eternal Son of God, the second Person in the Godhead, did not become incarnate:  Unitarians, Churches of the New Jerusalem, Quakers, Seventh Day Adventists, Mormons, Spiritists, Russellites, Christian Scientists, Rationalists.  Heb. 2, 14; Heb. 4, 15;  Gal. 4, 4.5; I Tim. 2,5; John 1, 14;

Matt. 16, 13, 16.  Also, all Modernists.

2.  That the Son of God did not assume our human nature in the body of Mary, but that also His human nature came forth from the essence of the Father: Mennonites, Schwenkfeldians.  Heb. 2, 16. 17;  Rom. 1, 3; Eph. 5, 30;  Luke 1, 42

3.  That Christ has but one nature, namely, the divine nature of the Son of God:  Seventh Day Adventists.  John 1, 14; I John 4, 2.3; I Tim. 3, 16.

4.  That Christ has but one nature, namely, the human nature: Unitarians, Russellites, Universalists, Shakers, Modernists.  I Tim. 3, 16; John 1, 14.

5.  That there are not two natures in Christ, since there is no essential differences between the divine and human: Mormons, Modernists.  John 1, 14; I Tim. 3, 16;  Col. 2, 9.

6.  That in the person of Christ the human nature and the divine nature were fused together.  Schwenkfeldians. Matt. 16, 13.16;  I Tim. 2, 5.6.

7.  That also after the incarnation, the divine nature is not only in but also outside the personal union:  Calvinistic Churches.  John 1, 14;  I Cor. 8, 6; I Tim. 3, 16; Col. 2, 9;  2 Cor. 5, 19;  (John 3:13;  Matt. 28:20).  (They teach that since the exaltation the divine nature is present on earth, but the human nature is enclosed in heaven.)

8.  That the communion of the two natures is not true and real, but that the statements,  “God is man,” and “Man is God” are only figures of speech: Calvinistic Churches.  Luke 1, 35;  I Cor. 15, 47; Matt. 16, 16;  Rom. 9, 5.

9.  That the communication of the attributes of both natures is not real, but only nominal; Calvinistic Churches.  I Pet. 3: 18, 22;  Acts 20, 28; Rom. 8,32.

10.  That Christ, according to His humanity, does not possess divine majesty, but only limited power and created gifts, which the human nature received after His exaltation: Calvinistic Churches, Evangelical Congregationalists, Schwenkfeldians, Christian Israelites, Mormons, Socinians, Unitarians, Shakers, Universalists, Arminians, John 1, 14:  John 2, 11; Matt. 28, 18;  Ps. 2, 8; Col. 2, 3;  Eph. 4, 10;  Phil. 2, 9;  John 5, 26, 27.  (This error is based on the rationalistic axiom, that the finite is incapable of the infinite.)

11.  That Christ’s human nature received glory and majesty only through His exaltation: Evangelical Congregational, Calvinistic Churches, Schwenkfeldians.  See passages. above.  (Christ’s human nature received the divine glory when He was conceived by the Holy Ghost,  John 1, 14.)

12.  That the man Christ received the fulness of divine majesty only in Baptism: Mormons. John 1, 14: Col. 2, 9;  I John 4, 2. 3.

13.  That the man Jesus Christ is not divine, does not possess divine majesty, and must not be worshiped and adored as God:  Unitarians, Shakers, Universalists, Modernists.  John 5, 33; Rom. 14, 10-11;  (Phil. 2:9-10).

14.  That Christ, as the Savior and Mediator, is subordinate to the Father in essence, majesty, and glory:  Arminians, Modernists.  John 5, 23.

15.  That since there is no communion of natures in Christ, each nature works independently of the other in the execution of Christ’s divine office:  Calvinistic Churches.  I Tim. 2, 5;  I John 3, 8;  I Cor. 15, 3; Gal. 1, 4; Eph. 5, 2. 25. (In that case Christ’s redemption would have been that of a mere man.)

16.  That Christ has performed His office only as man:  Irvingites.  See passages above.

17.  That Christ is our Mediator only according to the human nature:  Moravian Brethren, Irvingites.  I Tim 2, 5; Titus 2, 13; I Tim. 3, 16.

Note:  The doctrine concerning Christ’s true deity and humanity has always been an offense to human reason.

X.  OF CHRIST’S WORK AND OFFICE

WE BELIEVE (a)  that Jesus Christ, true God and true man truly suffered, was crucified, died and was buried, that He might reconcile us unto God and be our sacrifice not only for original guilt, but also for all actual sins of men;  (b)  that He descended into hell and truly rose again the third day;  (c)  that afterwards He ascended into heaven to sit at the right hand of the Father and forever reign and have dominion over all creatures, and, in particular, to gather, guide, and protect His Church on earth;  (d)  and that the same Christ shall finally come again to judge the quick and the dead.

a)  Gal. 4, 4. 5.  But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth His Son, made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adopton of sons.

Isa. 53, 4.5  Surely He hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows:  yet we did esteem Him stricken, smitten of God and afflicted.  But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities:  the chastisement of our peace was upon Him:  and with His stripes we are healed.

I Pet. 2, 24.  Who His own self bare our sins in His own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness.

b)  I Pet. 3, 18.19.  For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that He might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit: by which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison.

Col. 2, 15.  And having spoiled principalities and powers, He made a show of them openly, triumphantly over them in it.

Eph. 4, 9, 10.  (Now that He ascended, what is it but that He also descended first into the lower parts of the earth? He that descended is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens, that He might fill all things), –Cf. I Cor. 15, 17,18;  Rom 4, 25.

c)  Acts. 1, 9.  And when He had spoken these things, while they beheld, He was taken up; and a cloud received Him out of their sight.

Ps. 68, 18.  Thou hast ascended on high, Thou hast led captivity captive: Thou hast received gifts for men: yea, for the rebellious also, that the Lord might dwell among them.

Ps. 110, 1. The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool.–Cf. also Eph. 1, 20-22; John 14. 16. 17; I Cor. 6, 11.

d)  Acts 17, 31.  Because He hath appointed a day, in the which He will judge the world in righteousness, by that man whom He hath ordained; whereof He hath given assurance unto all men, in that He hath raised Him from the dead.

2 Cor. 5, 10.  For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad.

I. Thess. 4, 16.  For the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God; and the dead in Christ shall rise first.  –Cf. also Matt. 25, 31-46; 2 Pet. 3, 10.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That Christ has not fulfilled the Law in our stead; Arminians, Moravians, Methodists, Unitarians, Churches of the New Jerusalem, Mormons, Free Protestants, Christian Israelites, Modernists. Rom. 5, 19; Phil. 2, 7.8;  Gal. 4, 4.5.

2.  That Christ has fulfilled the Law only for the elect:  Calvinistic Churches, Presbyterians, Congregational Christians, Calvinistic Baptists, Calvinistic Methodists, etc.  2 Cor. 5, 15-19; John 1, 29;  I Tim. 4, 10; 2 Pet. 2, 1; Tit. 2, 11.

3.  That Christ came into the world as a Law-giver to proclaim new laws of righteousness:  Roman Catholic Church, Unitarians, Arminians, Methodists, Mennonites, Campbellites.  Gal. 3, 24; John 5, 45: Gal. 4, 4.5;  Matt. 22, 37-40.

4.  That Christ has made satisfaction only for original sin and has borne only the eternal punishments of sin, so that man must make satisfaction for all actual sins committed after Baptism and bear their temporal punishments:  Roman Catholic Church. Heb. 10, 10-14; I Pet. 3, 18;  I John 2, 1.2; Rom 5, 10.

5.  That Christ has died only for the elect and has made satisfaction only for their sins:  Calvinistic churches, Presbyterians, Congregational Christians, Calvinistic Baptists, Calvinistic Methodists, Waldensians.  2 Cor. 5: 15,18;  John 1, 29; I Tim. 2, 5. 6; Rom. 8, 32; Heb. 2, 9; Tit. 2, 11; 2 Pet. 2, 1.

6.  That Christ’s death is not in itself a perfect satisfaction for our sins, but was so judged only by the special grace of the Father:  Arminians.  Rom. 5, 10; John 19, 30; I Pet. 2,24.

7.  That Christ indeed died for the sins of the world, but that the atonement, which is limited to believers, began only in the year 1844;  Seventh Day Adventists.  Heb. 1,3; Rom. 8,34; I Tim. 4,10; Tit. 2,11;  2 Pet. 2,1;  I Cor. 15,57; I John 1,7.

8.  That Christ has not rendered satisfaction for man’s sins, since such satisfaction is not needed.  Unitarians, Universalists, Free Protestants, Shakers, Spiritists, Christian Scientists, Modernists. Ps. 49, 8,9; Rev. 14,13: (5:9); Isa. 53,6; Rom. 3, 23-26; Acts 4,12; Matt. 20,28; I Tim. 2,6; Rom. 8,32; 2 Cor. 5,19-21.

9.  That Christ by His death has not paid the penalty of our sins, but only has made it possible for God’s love to forgive the sins of the penitent:  Salvation Army and many Calvinists. 2 Cor. 5,14-15; John 1,29;  I John 3,8.

10.  That Christ has not redeemed us by His suffering and death, but has merely secured for us the opportunity during the Millennium to earn eternal life by our own obedience:  Russellites, Isa. 53, 6;  Matt. 20,28;  John 14, 6; Luke 16, 26;  I John 1, 7;  I John 2, 1.2.

11.  That Christ is not our only Mediator before God, but that also the saints, especially Mary, whose merits are precious before God, may intercede for us. Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox church.  John 14. 6; Acts 4, 12; I Tim. 2,5.

12.  That Christ is not the only Savior of the world:  Modernists, Shakers.  Isa. 42,8; Isa. 43,11.

13.  That Christ’s human nature received only limited divine attributes and these in His exaltation:  Calvinistic Churches, Schwenkfeldians.  Ps. 102,27; John 2, 11; Heb. 1, 12-13; Eph. 1, 20,21.

14.  That Christ according to his human nature in the state of humiliation did not possess divine majesty, since this was given Him only at His exaltation:  Arminians, Evangelical Congregational, Campbellites, Irvingites, Calvinistic Churches in general.  John 2,11; John 1,14; (John 3:13); John 11,40;  John 13,31; John 18,6; (Isa 9:6-7).

15.  That Christ’s soul did not really suffer agony in His passion:  Roman Catholic Church.  Matt. 27,46; Matt. 26,38; Luke 22,42; Heb. 2,17.18; (Heb.5:7-8).

16.  That Christ did not suffer the wrath of God and the agony of hell:  Unitarians, Arminians, Evangelical Association, Universalists, Free Protestants, Modernists.  Gal. 3,13; Gal. 3,10; Rom. 6,23; (Ps. 16:10).

17.  That Christ’s soul after His death entered into the limbus patrum (Hades) in order to free the saints of the Old Testament from bondage: Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Catholic church.  I Pet. 3,18.19; Col. 2,15; I Cor. 15,55; (Luke 16:23).

18.  That Christ did not really and truly descend into hell:  Calvinistic Churches, Arminians, Unitarians, Evangelical Congregational Church.  Eph. 4,9; I Pet. 3, 18.19; Col. 2,14.

19.  That Christ did not arise bodily from the dead:  Russellites, Christian Scientists.  John 2,19; Phil. 3,20-21; Matt. 28,2f; John 20, 19.26; Matt. 17, 1f; (Ps. 16:9-11).

20.  That Christ after His exaltation had a new and different body:  Unitarians.  Luke 24, 39; Phil 2,8.9; Acts 7,55.

21.  That Christ’s sitting at the right hand does not signify His supreme and universal rule, power and majesty, according to the human nature, but only limited power, and His confinement to a certain place in heaven:  Calvinistic Churches, Episcopalians, Congregational Christians, Baptists, Methodists, Evangelical Congregational, Arminians, Unitarians, Seventh Day Adventists, etc.  Ps. 110,1: Heb. 1,3; Eph. 1, 20-23;  I Pet. 3,22.

22.  That Christ is not present upon earth, but is here represented only by the Holy Spirit:  Mormons.  Matt. 28.20.

XI.  OF CONVERSION

WE BELIEVE  (a) that saving faith in Christ is not found by nature in any man, but is the gift of the Holy Ghost granted freely in conversion;  (b)  that conversion is neither wholly nor in part the work of man, but solely the work of God, who by His grace and power, for Christ’s sake, converts sinners through the Gospel;  (c) that the Holy Spirit is willing to work conversion not only in a few, but in all hearers of the Word, and that if some hearers nevertheless remain unconverted, this is due, not to any deficiency in the grace of God, but solely to their obstinate resistance.  (d) We reject every doctrine of synergism which teaches that conversion is brought about, not solely by the grace of  God, but in part also by man’s cooperation, correct conduct, self-decision and lesser guilt as compared with others;  (e) we reject also every doctrine of Calvinism which asserts that God would not earnestly convert all hearers of the Word, but only the elect.

a)  I Pet. 1, 3.4.  Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to His abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for you.

John 3, 5.6  Jesus answered,  Verily, verily, I say unto thee,  Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.  That which is born of the flesh is flesh and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.

Eph. 2, 1.  And you hath He quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins. –Cf. also James 1, 18;  Ps. 103;  John 8, 21;  Ps. 51, 7; Ps. 51, 12;  Jer. 31, 18;  Rom. 3, 23;  Rom. 7, 18.

b)  I Cor. 2, 14  But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God; for they are foolishness unto him;  neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned.

Eph. l, 19.20  And what is the exceeding greatness of His power to usward who believe, according to the working of His mighty power, which He wrought in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead, and set Him at His own right hand in the heavenly places.

Rom. 10, 17.  So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God.

c)  Matt. 23, 37.  O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings and ye would not!

Acts 7, 51.  Ye stiffnecked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, ye do always resist the Holy Ghost:  as your father did, so do ye.

(d)  I Cor. 2, 14.  But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God; for they are foolishness unto him; neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned.

Eph. 4, 18. Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart.

Phil. 2, 13.  For it is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of His good pleasure. –Cf. also Luke 19, 41.42; Rom. 3, 23;  Rom. 8, 7.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That conversion is not solely the gracious work of God, but in part also the work of man:  Campbellites, Presbyterians, Quakers, Churches of the New Jerusalem, Shakers, Unitarians, Synergists, Roman and Eastern Orthodox Churches, Arminians, Modernists, Mennonites, Free Will Baptists, Methodists, Mormons, Adventists, Evangelical Association, Universalists.  See passages above.

2.  That children cannot be converted: Unitarians, Campbellites, Baptists.  Mark 10, 14; Matt. 18, 6; Matt. 18, 10.11.  (See also Isaiah 28:9).

3.  That the elect, having once been converted, cannot again lost faith and fall from grace:  Calvinistic Churches, Campbellites, Presbyterians, etc.  Gal. 4, 19;  Luke 8, 13. (See also Gen. 3)

4.   That the non-elect are not called earnestly and efficaciously:  Calvinistic Churches, Presbyterians, Congregational Christians, Calvinistic Baptists.

Matt. 11, 28;  Mark 16, 15.16; Acts 17, 30;  Matt. 28, 19.20. (Prov. 1:24; Isa. 1:5, 18-20; Ezek. 33:11)

5.  That the Holy Ghost works faith and repentance not through God’s Word, but rather through the inner light which He gives to man:  Quakers.  Rom 10,17;  James 1, 18;  I Pet. 2,2.

6.  That faith is not solely the gracious gift of God the Holy Ghost, but men can believe the Gospel even without the Holy Ghost:  Unitarians, Campbellites, Arminians, Cumberland Presbyterians. I Cor. 12, 3;  Col. 2, 12;  Matt. 16, 17;  John 6, 44. 65.

7.  That the grace of God in conversion is irresistible: Calvinistic Churches, Congregational Christians, Calvinistic Baptists, etc.  Isa. 65, 2;  Luke 7, 30; John 5, 40;  (Acts 7:51).

XII.  OF FAITH IN CHRIST

WE BELIEVE  (a) that since through Christ’s vicarious satisfaction all mankind is reconciled to God and this reconciliation is proclaimed to men in the Gospel to the end that all should believe the message of God’s grace, faith in Christ is the only means by which to obtain forgiveness of sin and salvation; (b) that faith in Christ is properly a firm trust and confidence in the forgiveness of sins for Christ’s sake alone.

a & b)  Acts 10, 43  To Him give all the prophets witness, that through His name whosoever believeth in Him shall receive remission of sins.

John 3, 16.17.36.  For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish but have everlasting life. For God sent not His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved. He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life.

Heb. 11, 1.  Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen. –Cf. also Rom. 4, 20. 21.

WE REJECT   as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That faith is not confidence in the Gospel promises, but the acceptance of what the Church teaches:  Roman Catholic Church.  John 3, 36; Rom. 4, 20. 21;  2 Tim. 1, 12;  John 20, 28f.

2.  That saving faith is not a sinner’s trust in the forgiveness of his sins for Christ’s sake, but only assent to the truth of the Gospel:  Roman Catholic Church;  Universalists, etc.  Rom. 8, 38. 39;  Heb. 10, 22; (Rom. 5:4; Heb. 6:18; 10:38-39).

3.  That the object of faith is not the crucified Christ and His righteousness:  Unitarians, Churches of the New Jerusalem. Quakers, Modernists,  Acts 16,31; Rom. 3, 24.25;  Rom. 8, 34; Gal. 2, 20; (I Cor. 1:18, 23; 2:2).

4.    That love and obedience are the essence, not the fruits of faith;  Unitarians, Arminians, Roman Catholic Church, Mennonites, Churches of the New Jerusalem, Modernists; Gal. 5. 4.6, Heb. 11,1.

5.  That saving faith may exist in the hearts of the elect together with mortal sins:  Roman Catholic church, Calvinistic Churches.  I John 2, 3-4; I John 5, 4;  John 3, 36; (Rom. 3:31; Jas. 2:14-26; Eph. 2:10).

XIII.  OF JUSTIFICATION

WE BELIEVE (a) that God does not receive men on the basis of their own works, (b) but that without the deeds of the Law, by grace alone, on account of the perfect merit of Christ.  He justifies them, that is, He regards as righteous all those who believe that for Christ’s sake their sins are forgiven. (c)  that by this doctrine alone Christ is given the honor due Him, and through it alone sinners receive the abiding comfort that God is surely gracious to them; (d)  that the Christian religion is centered in the precious doctrine that we obtain forgiveness of sin without works of our own, solely by the grace of God, for Christ’s sake, through faith.

a)  Ps. 130, 3.4.  If Thou, Lord, shouldest mark iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand? But there is forgiveness with Thee, that Thou mayest be feared.

Ps. 31, 1. In Thee, O Lord, do I put my trust; let me never be ashamed: deliver me in Thy righteousness.

Ps. 143, 2.  And enter not into judgment with Thy servant: for in Thy sight shall no man living be justified.

b)  Rom. 3, 28.  Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law.

Rom. 3, 22-24.  Even the righteousness of God, which is by faith of Jesus Christ, unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference, for all have sinned and come short of the glory of God; Being justified freely by His grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus.

I Cor. 1, 30.  But of Him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption.–Cf. also Rom. 8, 33. 34.

c)  I Tim. 2, 5.  For there is one God, and one Mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus.

Rom. 8, 38. 39  For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.

2 Cor. 1, 19. 20.  For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was preached among you by us, even by me and Silvanus and Timotheus, was not yea and nay, but in Him was yea.  For all the promises of God in Him are yea, and in Him Amen, unto the glory of God by us.  –Cf. also Rom. 3, 22-25.

d)  Rom. 3, 28.  Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law.

2 Tim. 1, 9. Who hath saved us, and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to His own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began.

Rom. 4, 5.  But to him that worketh not, but believeth on Him that justified the ungodly, His faith is counted for righteousness.

Eph. 2: 8-9  For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: not of works, lest any man should boast.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That justification is not a judicial act of God whereby He imputes to the believer Christ’s righteousness, but that it consists in the sinners’ renewal and sanctification through infused grace:  Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox church, Mennonites, Irvingites, Quakers, Churches of the New Jerusalem,  Schwenkfeldians, Salvation Army.  Rom. 3, 24. 25;  Rom. 8, 33. 34;  (Rom. 11:6).

2.  That sins are indeed forgiven, but not for Christ’s sake and through the imputation of His righteousness:  Unitarians, Arminians,  Modernists,  Universalists.  Eph. 1, 7; Rom. 11, 6;  Acts 10, 43;  2 Cor. 5, 21;  Phil. 3, 9.

3.  That justification does not consist in the present forgiveness of sins (since the atonement is not yet complete), but in the promise of future forgiveness made to those who confess and forsake sin:  Seventh Day Adventists.  Rom. 3, 24, 35; (Ps. 103:3).

4.  That sin is not forgiven, but rather annihilated: Christian Scientists.  I John 1, 8. 9.

5.  That God in forgiving sin does not remit all punishment, but man himself must render satisfaction for the temporal punishments of sin:  Roman Catholic Church, Universalists.  Eph. 2, 4.5;  I John 4, 10;  Col. 2, 13;  Rom. 4, 5; Rom. 10, 4; (Heb. 10:14).

6.  That man is indeed justified by faith, yet not because faith trusts in the merit of Christ, but because it is a willing obedience to His Word:  Eastern Catholic church, Mennonites, Churches of the New Jerusalem, Seventh Day Adventists, Mormons, Irvingites, Arminians, Unitarians, Free Protestants, Campbellites.  Phil. 3, 9;  Acts 10, 43;  Eph. 2, 8.9;  Rom. 4, 16; (Rom. 10:1-4).

7.  That man is justified through “the act of faith,” and that his salvation rests upon his good works:  Campbellites, Quakers, Christian Israelites.  Rom. 3,22; (Rom. 11:6).

8.   That a Christian cannot be sure of the forgiveness of his sins, but must remain in doubt concerning his salvation: Roman Catholic Church.  Rom. 5, 1. 2; Rom. 8, 15. 16.

9.  That only he may be sure of the forgiveness of sins, who feels the assurance of God’s grace in his heart:  Methodists, Moravians,  Evangelical  Congregational, Salvation Army, Calvinistic Churches.  John 20, 29;  I John 3, 20;  Rom. 4, 18-22; James 1, 6; (Ps. 51: 3,8, 10-12;  Ps. 28:1).

XIV.  OF REPENTANCE

WE BELIEVE  (a) that repentance is the true conversion to God through faith in Christ Jesus of a poor sinner who by the law has knowledge of his sins and experiences sorrow for them: (b) that hence repentance consists of two parts, namely, contrition and faith; (c) that contrition is the true and sincere sorrow of a heart which, on account of its sins as revealed by the divine Law, is terrified and distressed in view of the wrath of God and His righteous punishments;  (d) that faith is that act of the soul by which it, through the power of the Holy Ghost, lays hold of the grace and mercy of God, set forth in the Gospel, for the purpose of obtaining eternal life.

a)  Luke 18, 13.  And the publican, standing afar off, would not lift up so much as his eyes unto heaven, but smote upon his breast, saying, God be merciful to me a sinner.

b & c)  Ps. 51, 17.  The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit; a broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise.

Acts 16, 30. 31.  And brought them out, and said, Sirs, what must I do to be saved? And they said, Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and they house.

d).  2 Tim. 1, 12.  for the which cause I also suffer these things: nevertheless I am not ashamed: for I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that He is able to keep that which I have committed unto Him against that day.

I Cor. 12, 3.  Wherefore I give you to understand, that no man speaking by the Spirit of God, calleth Jesus accursed: and that no man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That repentance is a Sacrament of the New Testament for the forgiveness of mortal sins committed after Baptism, and that it consists in the contrition of the heart, the confession of all sins before the priest, and satisfaction by works;  Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church.  Acts 19, 4;  Rev. 2, 5; Isa. 54, 10; (66:2; Hos. 14:2); Luke 24, 46. 47;  Heb. 11, 6; (Jer. 31:19).

2.  That faith is not an essential part of repentance: Calvinistic churches, Methodists, Evangelical Congregational Church, Moravians, Salvation Army, Free Will Baptists.  Matt. 3:2;  Matt. 5, 6; John 3, 16.

3.  That repentance consists essentially in the renunciation of sin and renewal of the heart:  Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox church,  Mennonites, Mormons, Free Will Baptists, Churches of the New Jerusalem, Unitarians, Universalist, Free Protestants, Seventh Day Adventists, Campbellites, Calvinistic Reformed Churches, Methodists, Evangelical Congregational, Moravians.  Ps. 6, 3,4;  Rom. 4, 6; (I Kgs. 8:47; Ezek. 14:6; Luke 17:4; Acts 26:20).

XV.  OF SANCTIFICATION AND GOOD WORKS

WE BELIEVE (a)  that good works are all works of the regenerate, performed in the power of the Holy Spirit, proceeding from true faith, conforming to God’s commandments, and designed to glorify God and manifest due gratitude; (b) that since sanctification in this life is only imperfect, also the good works which the regenerate perform are imperfect, being tainted by the infirmities of the flesh;  (c) that good works must be done, not in order to atone for sins or merit eternal life, but to manifest faith and give thanks for the divine benefits received.

a)  Matt. 15, 9.  But in vain they do worship Me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.

John 15, 5.  I am the Vine, ye are the branches, He that abideth in Me, and I in Him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without Me ye can do nothing.

I Cor. 10. 31.  Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, do all to the glory of God. –Cf. also Col. 3, 7.

b)  Rom. 7, 21-24  I find then a law, that when I would do good, evil is present with me. For I delight in the law of God after the inward man.  But I see another law in my members warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members.  O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death?

Gal. 5, 17.  For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one of to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.

c)  Matt. 5, 16.  Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven (Eph. 2:8  For by grace are ye saved, through faith; and that not of yourselves:  it is the gift of God: not of works, lest any man should boast.)

Eph. 2, 10.  For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.

James 2, 17. 18.  Even so faith, if it hath not works, is dead, being alone, Yea, a man may say, Thou hast faith, and I have works: show me thy faith without thy works, and I will show thee my faith by my works.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That perfect sanctification and perfectly good works are possible already in this life:  Roman Catholic Church, Arminians, Methodists, Evangelical United Brethren, Evangelical Congregational, Salvation Army, Schwenkfeldians, Unitarians, Mormons, Shakers, Holiness Churches.  Phil 3, 12;  I Thess. 4, 1;  2 Cor. 4, 16; Eph. 4, 15;  James 3, 2;  (Jer. 17:9; Rom. 8:7).

2.  That also the unregenerate can perform good works:  Arminians, Campbellites, Unitarians, Churches of the New Jerusalem, Quakers.  Eph. 2, 10;  Rom. 14, 23; Matt. 7, 16;  John 15, 5.

3.  That also such deeds are good works which are done without the special command of God, according to the commands of the Church:  Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church. Col. 2, 16-23;  I Tim. 4: 1-5.

4.  That it is possible for a just man to perform supererogatory works for the benefit of others: Roman Catholic Church.  Isa. 64, 6; Luke 17,10; Ps. 49,7.8.

5.  That the good works of the Christians are perfectly good and holy:  Quakers.  Heb. 12, 1; Rom. 7, 8.23; Gal. 5, 17; (Isa. 64:6).

6.  That good works are necessary to merit salvation:  Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox church, Waldensians, Mennonites, Campbellites, Seventh Day Adventists, Quakers, Churches of the New Jerusalem, Mormons, Christian israelites.  Matt. 5, 16; Eph. 2, 9-10; John 3, 16;  Hab. 2, 4; John 3, 36.  Also Lodgery, Modernists, and Sectarian churches in general.

XVI. OF PRAYER

WE BELIEVE  (a) that prayer is that divine service in which Christians confidently call upon the true and living God in the name of their Mediator Jesus Christ for those things which they need, and in which they give to Him praise and thanks for the blessings received:  (b) that Christians should pray for themselves and others without distinction,  but especially for those who are of the household of faith;  (c) that Christians should not pray for the dead:  (d) but that, otherwise, they should pray at all times and in all places for themselves and all men, trusting in Christ and leaving to God the time and manner of granting their wishes.

a)  Ps. 10, 17. Lord, Thou hast heard the desire of the humble: Thou wilt prepare their heart, Thou wilt cause Thine ear to hear.

Ps. 27, 8.  When Thou saidst, Seek ye My face; my heart said unto Thee, Thy face, Lord, will I seek.

Phil. 4, 6.  Be careful for nothing; but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God.

b)  I Tim. 2, 1-3.  I exhort, therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men; for kings, and for all that are in authority;  that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty, for this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Savior.

c)  Heb. 9, 27.  And as it is appointed unto me once to die, but after this the judgment.

d)  I Tim. 2, 8.  I will therefore that men pray everywhere, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That also angels and departed saints, especially Mary, “the Mother of Mercy,” should be called upon for help, and the pictures and relics of the saints should be venerated:  Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox church.  Matt. 4, 10;  Ps. 65, 2;  Rev. 19, 10;  Is. 63, 16; Luke 11, 2-4;  (Isa. 45:22).

2.  That only God the Father, and not the Son and the Holy Ghost, should be addressed in prayer:  Universalists, Unitarians, Modernists, Calvinistic Churches, Lodges.  Rom. 10, 13-14; John 5, 23;  (Isa. 48:16-17; Ps. 2:12).

3.  That also the spirits of the departed should be called upon:  Spiritists.  Rev. 19, 10;  Isa. 63, 16.

4.  That Christians must pray for the dead: Roman and Eastern Orthodox Churches.  Deut. 4, 2;  I Cor. 3, 8;  (Heb. 9:27).

XVII.  OF THE MEANS OF GRACE

WE BELIEVE  (a) that God does not offer and communicate the spiritual blessings secured by Christ, such as the forgiveness of sin, the Holy Ghost, etc., except through the means of grace ordained by Him;  (b)  that these means of grace are the Gospel, and the Sacraments of Baptism and the Lord’s Supper; (c) that this is amply proved of the Gospel by Acts. 20, 24. 32; Rom. 10, 17;  of Baptism by Acts 2, 38;  Tit. 3, 5;  of the Lord’s Supper by Luke 22,19. 20; Matt. 26, 28;  (d) that for this reason, namely because the Gospel and the Sacraments are the only means of grace ordained by God, Christ has charged the Church to go forth into all the world preaching the Gospel and administering the Sacraments (Mark 16, 15. 16);  (e) that, therefore, all other man-made means for building the Church are “new measures,” by which the Church is not built, but harmed.

a)  I Cor. 1, 21.  For after that in the wisdom of God, the world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe.

I Cor. 12, 13.  For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free: and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.

b & c)  Acts 20, 24. 32.  But none of these things move me, neither count I my life dear unto myself, so that I might finish my course with joy, and the ministry which I have received of the Lord Jesus, to testify the Gospel of the grace of God. And now, brethren, I commend you to God, and to the Word of His grace, which is able to build you up, and to give you an inheritance among all which are sanctified.

Rom. 10, 17.  So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God.

Acts 2, 38.  Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.

Matt. 26, 28.  For this is My blood of the New Testament which is shed for many for the remission of sins. –Cf. also Tit. 3, 5;  Luke 22, 19. 20.

d)  Mark 16, 15. 16.  And He said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and Preach the Gospel to every creature, He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not, shall be damned.

e)  For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.  (John 6:63b.  The words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life.)

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That there are seven Sacraments, and that these are the means of grace:  Roman and Eastern Orthodox churches. Matt. 28, 19; Matt. 26, 26-28.

2.  That the Sacraments, Holy Baptism and the Lord’s Supper, are not means of grace through which God bestows His grace and Spirit:  Calvinistic Churches, Presbyterians, Congregational Christians, Baptists, Mennonites, Methodists, Evangelical United Brethren, Evangelical Congregational Church, etc.  See Passages above.

3.  That God does not offer and communicate the spiritual blessings purchased by Christ alone through the means of grace, but also immediately, with the means of grace:  Calvinistic Churches, Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, Salvation Army.  Isa. 55, 10. 11;  John 6, 68; Acts. 13, 26; Acts 4, 12;  I Cor. 6, 11;  Gal. 3, 26. 27; Eph. 5, 25. 26;  Luke 7, 30.

XVIII. OF THE LAW AND THE GOSPEL

WE BELIEVE  (a) that in order to preach the Word of God rightly, a proper distinction must be observed between the Law and the Gospel; (b) that the Law reveals sin, proclaims the wrath of God, condemns those who do not perfectly obey Him, and commands what, according to the will of God, men should do and leave undone, without, however, granting power to do the works demanded, so that no man can be saved by the works of the Law;  (c) that the Gospel is the gracious message of salvation through Christ Jesus, by which the Holy Spirit works faith in men and thus saves them;  (d) that the whole Law must be preached in its whole severity and the Gospel in its full sweetness.

a & b)  Rom. 4, 15. Because the law worketh wrath.

Gal. 3, 21.  Is the law then against the promises of God?  God forbid:  for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. (Cf. also Rom. 3:27;  Eph. 2:8-9).

Deut. 27, 26. Cursed be he that confirmeth not all the words of this law to do them. –Cf. also Rom. 3, 20; Ps, 143, 2.

c)  I Tim. 1, 15.  This is a faithful saying and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners.

John 3, 16.  For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

Luke 2, 10.  And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for behold I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people.

d)  Gal. 3, 10.  For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

Rom. 1, 17.  For therein (in the Gospel), is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, the just shall live by faith.

WE REJECT as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That also the Gospel is the doctrine concerning good works:  Roman Catholic Church, Arminians, Methodists, Evangelical United Brethren, Evangelical Congregational. I Tim. 1, 15;  John 1, 17;  John 3, 16; (Rom. 10:15; Gal. 1:6-9; Eph. 6:15; 2 Thess. 2:14; 2 Tim. 1:10).

2.  That the Gospel is the inner light given to man as an immediate gift of the Holy Ghost:  Quakers. Luke 4, 18. 19;  Eph. 1, 13;  Eph. 2, 17; (Rom. 10:17).

3.  That the promises of the Gospel are conditional, and are given only to those who obey the laws of the Church and God:  Roman Catholic Church.  (Rom. 10:5-8; 11:6); Rom. 4, 16;  Acts 16:31.

4.  That a man becomes a Christian by obeying the Law:  Methodists, Roman Catholic Church. Gal. 3. 2,5; Gal. 3, 21.22;  2 Cor. 3,6.

5.  That also in the New Testament Christians are subject to ceremonial laws:  Roman Catholic Church (the ordinances of the apostles and their successors), the Eastern Orthodox Church, Presbyterians, Congregational Christians, Free Will Baptists, Baptists, Mennonites, Methodists, Evangelical United Brethren, Evangelical Congregational Church, Moravians, Quakers, Mormons (ceremonial laws respecting the Sabbath must now be applied to Sunday), Seventh Day Adventists (observations of the Sabbath or the Seventh Day),  Irvingites (laws concerning tithing). Heb. 10,1; Col 2,16; Gal. 5,12-13; Acts 15,10. 28-29;  Rom. 14,5,6; Gal. 4.10.11; Mark 2, 27; Gal. 5, 3; Gal. 2, 3-5.

XIX.  OF THE SACRAMENTS

WE BELIEVE  (a) that the Sacraments are true means of grace ordained by God, in which, through certain external means connected with His Word, He offers, conveys and seals unto men the grace which Christ has merited by His suffering and death;  (b)  that Christ has instituted only two Sacraments, namely,  Holy Baptism and the Lord’s Supper.

a)  John 3, 5.  Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.

Tit. 3, 5.  Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to His mercy He saved us, by the washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Ghost.

b)  Matt. 28, 18-20  And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto Me in Heaven and in earth. Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you:  and lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world.

Mark 16, 15. 16.  And He said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not, shall be damned.

Luke 22, 19. 20  And He took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is My Body, which is given for you: this do in remembrance of Me.  Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the New Testament in My blood, which is shed for you. –Cf. also Matt. 26, 28.

WE REJECT  as uncriptural the following teachings:

l.  That Christ has instituted five other Sacraments besides Baptism and the Lord’s Supper, namely, Confirmation, Penitence, Extreme Unction, Ordination of Priests, and Marriage;  Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church.   See passages above.

2.  That besides Baptism and the Lord’s Supper there are “ordinances” of God that are equally binding:  Mennonites, Irvingites, Mormons, Six Principle Baptists, (Foot-washing, laying on of hands, anointing the sick with oil, etc.)  See passages above.

3.  That the Sacraments are not means of grace, but simply signs and symbols of grace:  Calvinistic Churches, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregational Christians, Baptists, Mennonites, Arminians, Methodists, Evangelical United Brethren, Evangelical Congregational Church, Free Protestants, etc.  Eph. 5, 25-27;  Luke 7, 30; (I Pet. 3:21). Passages above.  Also Modernists.

4.  That the Sacraments were not instituted for all Christians, at all times, and that they are not in any sense true means of grace:  Quakers,  Unitarians.  Luke 7, 30; (Matt. 26:27; I Cor. 11:26;  I Pet. 3:21).

5.  That the Sacraments impart grace ex opere operato, that is, by the mere performance of the act, even without faith on the part of the recipient:  Roman Catholic Church. Acts 8, 36. 37;  I Cor. 11, 27. 29;  Rom. 4, 11;  Heb. 11, 6.

XX.  OF HOLY BAPTISM

WE BELIEVE  (a) that Baptism is not simple water only but water comprehended in God’s command and connected with God’s Word;  (b) that Baptism works forgiveness of sins; delivers from death and the devil, and gives eternal salvation to all who believe this, as the words and promises of God declare; (c)  that it is not the water of Baptism which bestows these blessings, but the Word of God which is in and with the water, and faith which trusts such Word of God in the water;  for without the Word of God the water is simple water and not Baptism, but with the Word of God it is a Baptism, that is, a gracious water of life, and washing of regeneration in the Holy Ghost;  (d) that Baptism signifies that the old Adam in us should by daily contrition and repentance be drowned and die with all sins and evil lusts, and again a new man daily come forth and arise, who shall live before God in righteousness and purity forever.

a)  Matt. 28, 19. 20.  Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you:  and lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. (Literal translation:  Make disciples of all nations by baptizing them, etc.)

Mark 16, 15. 16.  And He said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature.  He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not, shall be damned.

b)  Acts 2, 38.  Then Peter said unto them, Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.

John 3, 5.  Jesus answered, Verily, Verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.

Gal. 3, 26. 27.  For ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus. For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ. –Cf. also Tit. 3, 5. 7; Eph. 5, 25-27;  Mark 16, 16;  Mark 1, 4.

c)  Mark 16, 16.  He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not, shall be damned.

Tit. 3, 5 7. Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to His mercy He saved us, by the washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Ghost.

Eph. 5, 26.  That He might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the Word. –Cf. also Gal. 3, 26. 27.

d)  I Cor. 12, 13.  For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That Baptism was instituted only for the primitive Christian Church and is no longer in force:  Unitarians, Quakers, Salvation Army, Shakers, Modernists.  Matt. 28, 19; John 3, 5. 6.

2.  That only truly ordained ministers of the Church may perform Baptism:  Calvinistic Churches, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregational Christians, Baptists, Mormons. (Since Baptism is a necessary means of grace, any Christian should perform it in case of emergency).  John 3, 5.

3.  That immersion is the only proper mode of performing Baptism:  Eastern Orthodox Church, Baptists, Campbellites, Seventh Day Adventists, Mormons. (The Greek word for baptizing means, not only immersion, but also pouring and sprinkling.)  Mark 7, 4;  Luke 11, 38;  Acts 1, 5; Acts 2, 16, 17;  Heb. 10, 22; (11:29);  Acts 22, 16.

4.  That Baptism does not profit for the whole life of a Christian, but removes only original sin and the actual sins committed before Baptism, and these wholly and entirely:  Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches.  I Cor. 6, 11;  Gal. (3:27); 5, 24;  Rom. 7, 18-21; (I Tim. 1:15).

5.  That Baptism does not work forgiveness of sins, but is simply a sign and picture of the cleansing from sin: Calvinistic Churches, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregational Christians, Baptists, Mennonites, Methodists, Evangelical United Brethren, Evangelical Congregational, Moravians, Church of the New Jerusalem, Adventists, Mark 1, 4; Rom. 6, 3; Tit. 3, 5.

6.  That Baptism works forgiveness of sins as an act of obedience and faith:  Campbellites, Mormons.  (In that case salvation is obtained by good works.)  Mark 16, 16;  Tit. 3, 5;  Rom. 6, 3;  Gal. 3, 26. 27;  (I Cor. 6:11).

7.  That Baptism does not work forgiveness of sins, but is necessary for the forgiveness of sins to be granted during the millennium:  Seventh Day Adventists.  (I Pet. 3:21).

8.  That Baptism is not a washing of regeneration, but simply the solemn reception into the church:  Unitarians, Free Protestants, Calvinistic Churches.  See passages above.

9.  That the Baptism of the Spirit and not the Baptism of water works salvation:  Quakers, Salvation Army. (Baptism is that washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Ghost, Tit. 3, 5).  See above passages.

10.  That those baptized in childhood must be re-baptized when grown up:  Mennonites, Campbellites, Baptists. 2 Tim. 2, 13; Rom. 3, 3. 4;  Rom. 11, 29; (I Pet. 3:21;  Col. 2:11-12;  Eph. 5:25-27).

11.  That men may be baptized for the benefit of the dead:  Mormons.  Acts. 2, 38;  Hab. 2, 4;  (Heb. 9:27).

12.  That children born of Christian parents are holy in the sight of God even without Baptism:  Calvinistic Churches, Presbyterians, Mennonites.  John 3, 5. 6;  Eph. 2, 3;  Ps. 51:5;  John 1, 13.

13.  That all children are innocent and holy by nature:  Modernists, Mormons, Sectarian churches in general. Passages above.

14.  That children should not be baptized: Mennonites, Baptists, Campbellites, Mormons, Seventh Day Adventists. Matt. 28, 20; John 3, 5. 6;  Mark 16, 15. 16;  Mark 10, 13-16.

15.  That Baptism of infants is an ordinance of the Church, which may be observed or omitted:  Unitarians, Salvation Army, Arminians, Quakers, Evangelical United Brethren.  Mark 10, 14; Matt. 18, 10. 11.

16.  That children cannot believe:  Roman Catholic church, Eastern Orthodox church, Calvinistic Churches in general, Episcopalians, Arminians, Methodists, Evangelical United Brethren, Evangelical Congregational, Mennonites, Campbellites, Seventh Day Adventists, Modernists. Matt. 18, 10. 11; Matt. 18, 1-6;  Mark 10, 15.

XXI  OF THE SACRAMENT OF THE ALTAR OR THE LORD’S SUPPER

WE BELIEVE  (a) that the Sacrament of the Altar is the true body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, under the bread and wine, for us Christians to eat and to drink, instituted by Christ Himself;  (b)  that the benefit of sacramental eating and drinking is shown by these words:  “Given and shed for you for the remission of sins,”  namely, that in the Sacrament forgiveness of sins, life and salvation are given us through these words; for where there is forgiveness of sins there is also life and salvation; (c) that it is not the bodily eating that imparts these blessings, but the words here written: “Given and shed for you for the remission of sins,”  which words, besides the bodily eating and drinking, are as the chief thing in the Sacrament, and he that believes these words has what they say and express, namely, the forgiveness of sins;  (d)  that fasting and bodily preparation is indeed a fine outward training, but that he is truly worthy and well prepared who has faith in these words:  “Given and shed for you for the remission of sin,”  but he that does not believe these words, or doubts, is unworthy and unprepared, for the words “for you” require all hearts to believe.

a)  Luke 22, 19. 20.  And took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying,  This is My body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of Me.  Likewise also the cup, after supper, saying, This cup is the New Testament in My blood, which is shed for you.

Matt. 26, 26-28.  And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, take, eat; this is My body.  And He took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; for this is My blood of the New Testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.

Gal. 3, 15.  Brethren, I speak after the manner of men:  Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth or addeth thereto. –Cf.  also I Cor. 11, 24-26; Mark 14, 22-24.

b)  Matt. 11,28. Come unto Me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.

I Cor. 11, 28. 29.  But let a man examine himself and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord’s body.

c)  Mark 9, 24.  And straightway the father of the child cried out, and said with tears, Lord, I believe; help thou mine unbelief.

d)  Ps. 22, 26.  The meek shall eat and be satisfied; they shall praise the Lord that seek him: your heart shall live forever.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That Christ has not instituted Holy communion for all times, and that therefore Holy Communion may be observed or omitted: Quakers, Shakers, Salvation Army.  Mark 14, 24;  I Cor. 11, 24. 25;  Gal. 3, 15.

2.  That the words of institution must not be taken in a literal, but in a figurative sense:  Calvinistic Churches, Congregational Christians, Baptists, Methodists, Arminians, Presbyterians, Mennonites, Unitarians,  Evangelical Congregational Church, Moravians.  Gal. 3, 15; I Cor. 10, 16;  I Cor. 11, 26-28.

3.  That only the bread should be given to the laity:  Roman Catholic church.  Mark 14, 23;  Gal. 3, 15.  NOTE;  Lately wine, in some parishes, has also been served the Laity, which may become universal.

4.  That other elements than those presented by Christ may be used in communion:  Mormons.  Matt. 26, 26-29;  Luke 22, 18;  Gal. 3, 15.

5.  That the bread as a symbol of the body of Christ must be broken in order to signify the breaking of the Lord’s body on the cross:  Calvinistic Churches,  Presbyterians, Congregational Christians, Baptists, Arminians,  Mennonites, Campbellites, Unitarian, Quakers, (Christ’s bones were not broken on the cross.) John 19, 33.

6.  That Christ’s body and blood are not really present in Holy Communion, and are not really given to the recipient under the bread and wine:  Calvinistic Churches, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregational Christians, Baptists, Arminians, Methodists, Evangelical United Brethren, Unitarians, Mennonites, Seventh Day Adventists, Universalists, Campbellites, Mormons, Matt. 26, 26-28; I Cor. 10, 16; Ps. 33, 4;  Luke 1, 37.

7.  That Christ’s body and blood are received only spiritually by faith, not really:  Calvinistic Churches, Evangelical Congregational Church, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregational Christian, Baptists, Arminians, Moravians, Methodists, Salvation Army, Evangelical United Brethren, etc.  I Cor. 10, 16; I Cor. 11, 27;  Matt. 26, 26-28.

8.  That the bread and wine are transubstantiated into Christ’s body and blood:  Roman Catholic Church. I Cor. 10, 16.

9.  That the consecrated host, as Christ’s true body, must be worshiped as Christ Himself.  Roman Catholic Church.  Matt. 26, 26. 27.

10.  That the Holy Supper does not offer, convey, and seal forgiveness of sins, since it is only a memorial of Christ’s death:  Calvinistic Churches, Congregational Christian, Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, Evangelical United Brethren, Evangelical Congregational Church, Mennonites, Free Will Baptists, Campbellites, Mormons, Swedenborgians, Unitarians, Universalists.  Luke 22, 19. 20; Matt. 26, 26-28.

11.  That unworthy communicants do not receive Christ’s true body and blood:  Calvinistic Churches in General, Episcopalians, Congregational Christians, Baptists, Methodists, Evangelical Congregational.  I Cor. 11, 27-29.

12.  That Holy Communion should be offered also to children:  Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches.  I Cor. 11, 28. 29.

13.  That in Holy Communion Christ’s body must be sacrificed by the priest in an unbloody manner for the sins of the living and the dead:  Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. (The unbloody sacrifice of Christ’s body in Holy communion is a blasphemy of the Lord’s Supper).  Matt. 26, 26. 27; I Cor. 11, 26;  Heb. 10, 18;  Heb. 9, 22; I Pet. 3, 18.

XXII.  OF THE CHURCH

WE BELIEVE  (a) that there is on earth one holy Christian Church, which is gathered, preserved and governed by Christ through His Word;  (b) that members of this Christian Church are those only who believe in Christ as their true Savior; (c) that this one Holy Christian Church, which is the invisible communion of all believers, is found only in those visible Church communions which teach the Christian doctrine and administer the Sacraments;  (d) that although by the mercy of God believers are found in heterodox churches, still such churches do not exist by the will of God, but are earnestly prohibited since God desires that His Word should be preached and believed without human addition or subtractions;  (e) that it is, therefore, the will of God that Christians should unite only with orthodox churches and that those Christians who have strayed in heterodox churches should leave them and seek the communion of orthodox churches;  (f) that every kind of unionism, or church fellowship, with false teachers is disobedience to the express command of Christ, threatening the entire loss of the Word of God, and the real cause of divisions in the Church; (g)  that since all Christians are the original possessors of all the spiritual rights and privileges with which Christ has endowed His Church, the spiritual power belongs properly and originally in every part to all believers,  and not to individual persons, such as popes, bishops, ministers, secular princes, or church councils;  (h)  that to all Christians belong both the right and the duty of judging and deciding matters of doctrine;  (i) that the administration of public offices in the Church by individual persons is by delegation from the original possessors and must remain under their supervision.

a)  Eph. 2, 19. 22.  Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God… In whom ye also are builded together, for a habitation of God through the Spirit.

Rom. 12, 5.  So we, being many are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another.

I Cor. 12, 27.  Now ye are the body of Christ, and members in particular.

b)  Matt. 16, 18.  And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.  (This rock:  the confession that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of the living God.)

John 11, 51. 52.  And this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation: and not for that nation only, but that also He should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad.

Acts 16, 31.  And they said, Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house.  Cf.  also John 10, 27. 28.

c)  Matt. 28, 19. 20.  Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world.

Mark 16, 15. 16.  And He said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature.  He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved;  but he that believeth not shall be damned.

I Pet. 4, 11.  If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God; if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth; that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever.

d)  Matt. 7, 15.  Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.

2 John 10, 11.  If there come any unto you, and bring not this doctrine, receive him not into your house, neither bid him godspeed:  for he that biddeth him godspeed, is partaker of his evil deeds.

I John 4, 1.  Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world.

Cf. also Ps. 26, 5. 6;  Matt. 10, 32. 33;  Gal. 5, 9.

e)  Gal. 5, 9.  A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump.  (Also a “little false doctrine” works great injury.)

2 Tim. 2, 17.  And their word will eat as doth a canker. (False doctrines result in others and thus work ever greater harm.)

Rom. 16, 17. 18.  Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned; and avoid them. For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly;  and by good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple.

Cf. also I Cor. 10, 21.

f)  I Kings 18, 21.  And Elijah came unto all the people, and said, How long halt ye between two opinions? If the Lord be God follow Him: but if Baal, then follow him.

Eph. 4, 3-5.  Endeavoring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.  There is one body, and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith, one Baptism.

2 Cor. 6, 14-18. Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness?  and what communion hath light with darkness?  And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel?  And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols?  for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you.  And will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be My sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. Cf. also 2 John 10, 11.

g)  I Cor. 3, 21.  Therefore let no man glory in men. For all things are yours.

Matt. 16, 15-19.  He saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am?  And Simon Peter answered, and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. And Jesus answered and said unto him,  Blessed are thou, Simon Bar-jona; for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but My Father which is in heaven.  And I say also unto thee That thou are Peter, and upon this Rock I will build My Church;  and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven:  and whatsoever thou shall bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven:  and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven.

Matt. 18, 17-20.  And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church; but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as a heathen man and a publican.  Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven. Again I say unto you,  That if two of you shall agree on earth as touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall be done for them of My Father which is in heaven.  –Cf. also John 20, 22. 23; Matt. 28, 19. 20.

h)  I Cor. 10, 15.  I speak as to wise men;  judge ye what I say.

I Pet. 4, 11.  If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God; if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth; that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever.

Rom. 16, 17. 18.  Now I beseech you brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned; and avoid them. For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple.

i)  Col. 4, 17.  And say to Archippus, take heed to the ministry which thou hast received in the Lord, that thou fulfill it.

Matt. 18, 17-20.  And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church let him be unto thee as an heathen men and a publican.  Verily I say unto you,  Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven. Again I say unto you,  That if two of you shall agree  on earth as touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall be done for them of My Father which is in heaven. For where two or three are gathered together in My name, there am I in the midst of them.

I John 4, 1.  Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That the Church, outside of which there is no salvation, is the visible communion of all, either good or bad, who submit to the authority of the Pope: Roman Catholic Church:  2 Thess. 2, 8-10;  Rom. 12, 5; I Cor. 12, 27;  Heb. 3, 6;  Eph. 2, 19-22;  I Pet. 2, 5; (Matt. 23:8).

2.  That the Church is the communion of all those who are illumined by the inner light, no matter whether they are Christians,  Turks, Jews, or heathen:  Quakers.  Ps. 147, 20;  Acts 5, 12;  John 14, 6;  I Cor. 12, 3.

3.  That the only Church of Jesus Christ in the latter day is the Church of Mormon, and that all who do not belong to this Church are Gentiles:  Mormons. Rev. 2, 9; (Gal. 6:16).

4.  That the Church can never be without the hierarchy and apostolic succession:  Roman Catholic Church, Episcopal Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Catholic Apostolic Church.  (The apostolic succession is not taught in Scripture.)  2 Tim. 2, 19; I Cor. 10, 17;  I Pet. 2, 5;  (Matt. 23:8).

5.  That the Word and Sacraments are not the only signs of the true Church:  Calvinistic churches, Mennonites, Methodists, Arminians.  Matt. 28, 19. 20;

I Cor. 10, 17;  Mark 16, 15. 16;  (Isa. 55:10-11).

6.  That there are no hypocrites or impostors in the visible Church:  Mennonites, Methodists, Evangelical United Brethren.  Matt. 25, 1. 2;  Matt. 13, 24-26; Matt. 13, 17. 48; Matt. 22, 10-14;  Acts 20, 29. 30.

7.  That the Church (the Roman Catholic Church) cannot err:  Roman Catholic Church.  (The Roman Catholic Church has erred; only Christ and His Word are infallible.)  2 Tim. 2, 19; John 8, 31. 32.

8.  That the true Christian Church has perished: Shakers.  Ps. 46, 5. 6;  Matt. 28, 19. 20; (Matt. 16:18; Matt. 24:14,  cf. Luke 21:24).

9.  That the miraculous gifts of the Spirit have been restored to the Church of the latter time:  Irvingites, Mormons, Seventh Day Adventists, Christian Catholic Church (Dowieites). Deut. 13, 1-3;  Matt. 24, 24;  Similar views are held by the Holiness Churches, (Pentecostals, and the charismatic movement).  (2 Cor. 2:12).

10.  That Christians of the various denominations may fellowship in spite of differences in doctrine, since purity of doctrine cannot be obtained:  Calvinistic Churches, Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians, Congregational Christians, Arminians, Moravians, Evangelical Congregational, Campbellites, Unitarians, Christian Catholic Church (Dowieites). Eph. 4, 3-5;  Gal. 5, 9;  Rom, 16, 17. 18; Tit. 3, 10. 11; 2 John 10, 11: I Cor. 10, 21;  I Kings 18, 21;  I John 4, 1; (Jeremiah 23:31; Rev. 18:4).

XXIII.  OF THE MINISTRY

WE BELIEVE  (a)  that the office of the ministry is a divine ordinance, that is, Christians living at certain places are enjoined by divine precept to preach the Word of God, not only privately within the circle of their families, but also publicly through persons qualified for such work, and to have the Sacraments administered according to the institution of Christ (Tit., ch. 1);  (b) but that the office of the ministry possesses no other power than the power of the Word, that is, it is the duty of Christians to yield unconditional obedience to the office of the ministry only, wherever and whenever the minister proclaims to them the Word of God.  On the other hand, if the minister in his teachings, goes beyond the Word of God, Christians must disobey, so as to remain faithful to Christ.

a)  Acts 14, 23.  And when they had ordained them elders in every church, and  had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they believed.

2 Tim. 2, 2.  And the things that thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach others also.

Eph. 4, 11.  And He gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some evangelists, and some, pastors and teachers. –Cf. also Acts 20, 28; I Cor. 4, 1.

b)  I Pet. 4, 11  If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God; if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth; that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever.

Tit. 1, 14.  Not giving heed to Jewish fables, and commandments of men that turn from the truth.

Heb. 13, 17.  Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit yourselves: for they watch for your souls, as they that must give account, that they may do it with joy, and not with grief: for that is unprofitable for you.  Cf. also Luke 10, 16; Matt. 23, 8;  Matt. 18, 17-20;  John 20, 22. 23.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That God has not instituted the office of the ministry:  Quakers,  Eph. 4, 11; Acts. 20, 28;  I Cor. 4, 1; (Tit. 1:5).

2.  That Christ has given the office of the ministry not to the Church as such, but only to His apostles, who bequeathed it to their successors, the bishops:  Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Episcopalians, etc.  Matt. 18, 17-20; Matt. 16, 15-19; John 20, 22. 23;  Matt. 28, 19, 20; (I Pet. 2: 5,9).

3.  That the office of the ministry does not belong to the whole Church, but only to certain persons within the Church; Calvinistic Churches, Presbyterians, Methodists, Evangelical United Brethren, Evangelical Congregational, Irvingites.  I Cor. 3, 21-23;  2 Cor. 4, 5; Ps. 68, 11;  I Cor. 4, 1; I Pet. 2,9; I Pet. 5. 20, 3.

4.  That any one may publicly teach in the Church, without being duly called:  Quakers, Unitarians, Spiritists, some Calvinistic Churches, Methodists, etc.  Jas. 3, 1;  Jer. 23, 21; Rom. 10, 15;  I Cor. 12, 29; Heb. 5, 4.

5.  That God even today calls His ministers immediately, that is, without the instrumentality of His Church: Irvingites, Quakers, Methodists, etc.  I Tim. 3, 2; 2 Tim. 2, 2;  Tit. 1, 5, etc.

6.  That the calling of ministers is a privilege granted not to the whole Church, but only to the spiritual heads of the Church, such as bishops, elders, etc.: Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox church, Methodists, Evangelical United Brethren, Evangelical Congregational Church, Moravians, etc.  Matt. 18, 17-20;  John 20, 22, 23; I Cor. 3, 21-23;  2 Cor. 4, 5;  I Pet. 2, 9;  I Pet. 5, 2. 3.

7.  That the ordination of priests is a Sacrament instituted by Christ for the bestowal of the Holy Spirit, the imparting of grace, and the imprinting of an indelible character:  Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church.  (The ordination is not a divine institution, but only an apostolic and churchly rite by which the call is publicly confirmed.  Similar doctrines are held by the Irvingites and Mormons.)

8.  That only such are true ministers of the Church as have been ordained by bishops (Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Episcopalians), by prophets and apostles (Irvingites), by elders (Mormons).  Matt. 18, 17-20;  Acts. 1, 15-26; Acts 6, 1-6.

9.  That also women may publicly teach and preach as ministers of the Church:  Quakers, Evangelical United Brethren, Salvation Army, Calvinistic Churches.  I Cor. 14, 34;  I Tim. 2, 11. 12.

10.  That the different offices and ranks of the clergy are not of human but of divine origin:  Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Irvingites. I Pet. 5, 1;  I Cor. 3, 5;  John 13, 13. 14; Matt. 23, 8-10. (The Gospel ministry is the supreme office in the Church, from which all other offices are derived, and Christ has prescribed no differences in rank or office, for He is the only Master, and all the offices of the Church are brethren.  Matt. 23, 8-10).

11.  That not all believers, but only ordained ministers of the Word are priests in the proper sense of the term: Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Irvingites, Mormons. I Pet. 2, 9; Rev. 1, 5. 6;  Rev. 5, 10;  I Cor. 3, 5.  (According to the clear teachings of the Bible, all Christians are priests before God; hence ministers do not form a particular priesthood in the Levitical sense of the Old Testament.)  Heb. 7, 17. 18;  I Tim. 2, 5; Heb. 4, 16.

12.  That only priests can forgive sins: Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church.  I Pet. 2, 9; Matt. 18, 17-20;  John 20, 22. 23.  (When the called and ordained ministers of the Word forgive sins, they pronouce absolution in the name of God and in the place of the whole Christian Church to which Christ has granted the office of the keys; hence their absolution is “as valid and certain, in heaven also, as if Christ, our dear Lord, dealt with us Himself.”)

13.  That the ministers of the Word cannot really and truly forgive sins, but only proclaim absolution:  Calvinisttic Churches, Episcopalians, Irvingites, Unitarians, Free Protestants, etc. Mark 2, 7-10; Matt. 9, 8;  John 20, 22. 23;  I Cor. 3, 21-23; 2 Cor. 4, 5.

14.  That private confession (before the priest) is commanded by God and is a part of the Sacrament of Repentance: Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox church.  John 20, 22. 23; Matt. 9, 2;  2 Sam. 12, 13.  (Private confession is not commanded by God, but is an excellent voluntary practice.)

15.  That private confession (before the minister of the Word) must be rejected as papistical:  Calvinistic Churches. 2 Sam. 12, 13;  James 5, 16.

16.  That in private confession it is necessary to enumerate all sins in order that the priest as the judge may determine the penance by which the sinner must render satisfaction:  Roman Catholic Church.  Ps. 19, 12;  Matt. 6, 12;  Rev. 1, 5. 6; I Tim. 2, 5.  (The called and ordained minister of the Word has no other function than the preaching of the Word and the administering of the Sacraments.  He is not the judge to determine penances by which sinners may render satisfaction for their sins.  Sinners cannot be saved by their works, but are justified by grace alone through faith in Christ.)

17.  That the power of excommunication (the office of the keys) does not belong to the whole congregation, but to the spiritual rulers of the Church:  Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Methodists, Evangelical United Brethren, Evangelical Congregational,  etc. Matt. 18, 15-20;  I Tim. 5, 20;  I Cor. 5, 11-13;  2 Cor. 2, 6-8.

(18.  That a pastor is an employee, to be hired and fired.  Tit. 2:15,  Heb. 13:7, 17)

NOTE;   The Scriptural doctrine concerning the ministry is rejected both by the Catholic and the Calvinistic Churches.

XXIV.  OF ANTICHRIST

WE BELIEVE  (a) that the great Antichrist has appeared in the Roman papacy, because the abominations which have been predicted in Scripture, especially in 2 Thess. 2, regarding the Antichrist, agree with the hierarchy of the Pope and his members; for we behold the Pope, under the name and title of an infallible viceregent of Christ on earth, continually drawing men away from the Word and merits of Christ, and instead alluring them to his own word and to the righteousness of human works, and thus leading them into eternal damnation; and we behold him doing all this under the enticing form of external church ceremonies and great sanctity, and appealing to all manner of lying powers, signs and wonders.  (b)  Accordingly, we recognize in popery that great enemy of the Christian Church predicted in 2 Thess. 2, and we hold that those err and cannot duly warn souls against the seducing power of popery who expect the coming of the great Antichrist, or the full manifestation thereof, to be an event of the future.

a & b)  2 Thess. 2.  Let no man deceive you by any means:  for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshiped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God…For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only  he who now letteth will let, until he be taken out of the way. And then shall that Wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of His mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of His coming.  Even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan, with all power and signs and lying wonders, and with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved.  And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie: that they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.

I Tim. 4, 2. 3.  Speaking lies in hypocrisy, having their conscience seared with a hot iron; forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth.

2 Pet. 2, 19-21.  While they promise them liberty, they themselves are the servants of corruption: for of whom a man is overcome, of the same is he brought in bondage.  For if after they have escaped the pollutions of the world through the knowledge of the Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, they are again entangled therein, and overcome, the latter end is worse with them than the beginning. For it had been better for them not to have known the way of righteousness, than, after they have known it, to turn from the holy commandment delivered unto them. –Cf. also Dan. 11; Rev. 17, 9. 18, Rev. 13,13; Jude 8.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That the Pope is the visible head of the Church, the viceregent of Christ, and the infallible teacher of the true Church.  Roman Catholic Church.  Eph. 1, 22. 23; Col. 1, 18;  Luke 22, 25. 26;  Matt. 20, 25-28;  I Pet. 5, 2. 3;  Matt. 23, 7-11.

2.  That the government of the Church has been assigned by Christ to the clergy and not to the whole Church:  Eastern Orthodox Church, Episcopalians, Methodists, Evangelical United Brethren, Mormons, Irvingites, etc.  2 Cor. 1, 24; James 4, 12;  Acts 6, 6;  Acts. 15, 22. 23;  Acts 21, 22;  (3 John 9).

3.  That all Christians must be subject to the Roman Catholic Church as the mother and teacher of all believers: Roman Catholic Church.  I Cor. 7, 23;  John 3, 29. 30;  I Pet. 5, 2. 3;  Matt. 23, 7-11.

4.  That the Church has power to make laws and to command even where God does not command:  Roman and Eastern Catholic Churches,  Methodists, Evangelical United Brethren, Evangelical Congregational Church,  United Brethren in Christ,  Churches of the New Jerusalem, Salvation Army.

2 Thess. 2, 3.4;  I Cor. 7, 23;  James 4, 12;  Matt. 28, 19. 20;  I Pet. 5, 2.3;  Col. 1, 18;  Isa. 8, 19. 20; Col. 2, 8, Gal. 1, 8;  Matt. 15, 3-9; Josh. 23,6;  Deut. 4,2.

5.  That the ordinances of the Church must be observed as conscientiously as the command of God:  Roman and Eastern Orthodox Churches, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Methodists, Evangelical United Brethren, Evangelical Congregational, United Brethren in Christ, Salvation Army.  I Cor. 7, 35; Rom. 12, 1;  Col. 2, 16.

6.  That lay Christians have no right to judge concerning doctrine, to vote and counsel in church assemblies, or to share in the government of the Church:  Roman Catholic Church.  I Cor. 2, 15;  I Cor. 10, 15;  I John 4, 1;  Matt. 7,15; Acts 15, 22; Acts 21, 22; Rom. 14, 12; Acts 17, 11.

XXV.  OF CHURCH AND STATE

WE BELIEVE  (a) that although both Church and State are ordinances of God, they must not be mingled, since they have entirely different aims;  (b) that by the Church God purposes to save men, whereas by the State He purposes to maintain external order among men;  (c) that therefore also the means which Church and State employ to gain their ends are entirely different; (d) that the church must not employ any other means than the preaching of the Word of God and must reject all external force and coercion, while the State, on the other hand, makes laws bearing on civil life and rightly employs for their execution also the sword and other punishments.

a & b)  Matt. 22, 21.  Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s and unto God the things that are God’s.

I Tim. 2, 2.  For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty.

c & d)  John 18, 11.36.  Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up they sword into the sheath; the cup which My Father hath given Me, shall I not drink it?… Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: If My kingdom were of this world, then would My servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews, but now is My kingdom not from hence.

Rom. 13, 4.  For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That the power of the State must be employed in the interest of the Church, and that the Church must assist in governing the State by the Word of God:  Roman Catholic Church, Calvinistic Churches.  Rom. 13, 1. 2;  I Tim. 2, 1-3;  I Pet. 2, 13-15; Matt. 17, 27;  Matt. 22, 21.

2.  That no Christian may hold a public office in civil affairs:  Quakers, Mennonites, Shakers, Dunkards.  Matt. 22, 21;  Rom. 13, 1. 2.

3.  That a Christian may hold public office in civil affairs only if in the Constitution of the State God is recognized as the source of all power:  Reformed Presbyterians.  Matt. 22, 21;  I Tim, 2. 1-3.

4.  That the civil government has not by divine right the power to declare wars or to execute corporal punishment: Mennonites, Quakers.  Rom. 13, 4; Gen. 9, 6;  Matt. 26, 52.

5.  That Christians must not serve the government as soldiers:  Mennonites, Shakers, Quakers, Dunkards, Churches of the New Jerusalem; (Jehovah’s Witnesses).  Luke 3, 14;  Matt. 8, 5-7;  Acts. 10, 28.

6.  That a Christian must not take or administer an oath:  Mennonites, Dunkards, Quakers, etc.  Heb. 6, 16; Gen. 14, 22 .23; John 14,9;  2 Sam. 21, 7; 2 Cor. 1, 23;  Phil. 1, 8.

XXVI.  OF MARRIAGE

WE BELIEVE  (a) that the divine institution of matrimony is a union for life, consisting of one man and one woman; (b)  that it is established and sustained by their actual consent for the procreation of children, mutual aid and assistance, as a curb to licentiousness and an incentive to good habits and good fellowship among men;  (c) that there is but one cause for the dissolution of marriage, namely, adultery;  (d) that, however, an innocent party maliciously deserted by the other, is not bound;  (e) that marriage must be entered into by rightful betrothal, which includes the consent of parents and the observance of the laws of affinity and consanguinity;  (f) that marriage must not be prohibited to the clergy;  (g) that Christians should so conduct themselves in marriage that also this estate may redound to God’s glory and to the welfare of their own souls and of others.

a)  Rom. 7, 2.  For the woman which hath a husband is bound by the law to her husband so long as he liveth; but if the husband be dead, she is loosed from the law of her husband.

Gen. 2, 24.  Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife:  and they shall be one flesh.

Matt. 19, 4-6.  And He answered and said unto them,  Have ye not read, that He which made them at the beginning, made them male and female, and said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife:  and they twain shall be one flesh.  Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.

b)  Gen. 24, 58.  And they called Rebekah, and said unto her,  Wilt thou go with this man?  And she said, I will go.

Gen. 1, 28.  And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.

Eph. 5, 33.  Nevertheless, let every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; and the wife see that she reverence her husband.

I Cor. 7, 2-5.  Nevertheless, to avoid fornication, let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband. Let the husband render unto the wife due benevolence: and likewise also the wife unto the husband.  The wife hath not power of her own body, but the husband: and likewise also the husband hath not power of his own body, but the wife. Defraud ye not one the other, except it be with consent for a time, that ye may give yourselves to fasting and prayer, and come together again, that Satan tempt you not for your incontinency.  –Cf. also Gen. 2, 22-24;  Ps. 128, 2. 3.

c)  Matt. 5, 32.  But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery:  and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery.

Matt. 19, 3-6.  The Pharisees also came unto Him, tempting Him, and saying unto Him,  Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause?  And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read that He which made them at the beginning, made them male and female, and said,  For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife; and they twain shall be one flesh. Wherefore they are no wise twain, but one flesh.  What therefore God hath joined together, let no man put asunder.

Rom. 7, 2.  For the woman which hath an husband is bound by the law to her husband so long as he liveth;  but if the husband be dead, she is loosed from the law of her husband.

d)  I Cor. 7, 15.  But if the unbelieving depart, let him depart.  A brother or a sister is not under bondage in such cases: but God hath called us to peace.

e)  Gen. 24, 58.  And they called Rebekah, and said unto her, Wilt thou go with this man? And she said, I will go.

Eph. 6, 2. 3. Honor thy father and mother, which is the first commandment with promise, that it may be well with thee, and thou mayst live long on the earth.

I Cor. 5, 1   It is reported commonly that there is fornication among you, and such fornication as is not so much as named among the Gentiles, that one should have his father’s wife. –Cf. also Lev. 18, 6ff.; Lev. 20, 11f.

I Cor. 9, 5. Have we not power to lead about a sister, a wife, as well as other apostles, and as the brethren of the Lord, and Cephas?

g)  Rom. 13, 13.  Let us walk honestly as in the day; not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying.  But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfill the lusts thereof.

Eph. 5, 3. 4.  But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not be once named among you, as becometh saints, neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not convenient:  but rather giving of thanks.

Phil. 4, 8.  Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That marriage is a Sacrament instituted by Christ and imparting grace, though it must not be preferred to celibacy, a state more pleasing to God:  Roman Catholic Church.  Gen. 2, 18;  Matt. 19, 4; John 2, 1-11, Ps. 128; I Tim. 5, 14.  (Marriage is not a Sacrament.  The enforcing of celibacy upon the clergy is an act of tyranny by which also the Pope reveals himself as the Antichrist.) Matt. 19, 10-12;  I Tim. 4, 1-5.

2.  That marriage is a part of religion, and that without marriage no one can attain to the fulness of salvation: Mormons.  I Cor. 7, 7. 9. 25. 40.

3.  That believers, as the children of the resurrection, must not marry:  Shakers.  Heb. 13, 4; Eph. 5, 3-5;  I Cor. 6, 9. 10; (7:2; 9:5).

4.  That the clergy must not marry:  Roman Catholic Church.  I Tim. 3, 2. 4;  Heb. 13, 4;  I Tim. 4, 3ff.;  I Cor. 9, 5.  Matt. 4, 7.

5.  That polygamy is not forbidden in Scripture but rather commanded:  Mormons.  Matt. 19, 4-6.

6.  That the consent of parents is not necessary for lawful betrothal:  Roman Catholic Church.  Ex. 20, 12; Col. 3, 20; Ex. 22, 16. 17; Num. 30, 4-6.

7.  That the Church has power to release from the Scriptural commands concerning consanguinity and affinity:  Roman Catholic Church,  James 4, 12; I Cor. 7, 23;  Matt. 22, 13;  Matt. 15, 3-9;  Deut. 4, 2;  Josh. 23, 6.

8.  That no divorce may be granted for any reason, and that remarriage of the innocent party must not be permitted: Roman Catholic Church,  Matt. 5, 32;

I Cor. 7, 10. 11. 15.

XXVII.  OF THE RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD

WE BELIEVE  that on the last day the dead will rise, their souls clothed with the bodies which they possessed in the present life.

Dan. 12, 2.  And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.

Job. 19, 25-27.  For I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that He shall stand at the latter day upon the earth: and though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in the flesh shall I see God: whom I shall see for myself,  and mine eyes shall behold, and not another.

John 11, 24. 25.  Martha said unto Him, I know that He shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day. Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life:  he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

l.  That the souls of those who have not yet atoned for the temporal punishment of their sins must be purged in purgatory before they may enter eternal life, but that they may be released from the purgatorial punishment through the prayers of the living: Roman Catholic Church.  Luke 23, 43;  Luke 16, 22. 23; John 3, 36;  John 5, 24;  Phil. 1, 23;  Gal. 6, 8. 10;  Heb. 9, 27.  Also the Greek Catholic Church.

2.  That the souls of the righteous do not possess full salvation before Judgment Day, that the souls of the damned do not suffer the full torment of hell till Judgment, and that souls may be freed from the bonds of woe by intercessions, alms, and the unbloody sacrifice of the Eucharist:  Eastern Orthodox Church. Luke 23, 43;  Luke 2, 29;  Eccl. 11, 3;  Matt. 7, 13. 14;  Prov. 11, 7.

3.  That souls may be converted after death and before the Judgment:  Shakers, Spiritists, Mormons.  John 9, 4;  Eccl. 11, 3;  Prov. 11, 7.

4.  That the departed spirits experience neither bliss nor damnation.  Unitarians.  Heb. 9, 27;  Luke 16, 19-31;  Luke 23, 43.

5.  That also souls are mortal, and that hence the departed are neither in heaven nor hell, but asleep in the grave: Adventists, Seventh Day Adventists. Gen. 25, 8;  John 17, 24;  Rev. 6, 10;  Luke 16, 19-31; (2 Cor. 5;6-8).

6.  That all men after death enter into a better world:  Universalists, Spiritists, Christian Scientists, Modernists.  Luke 16, 19-31; Matt. 22, 31. 32; Matt. 10, 28; (Matt. 25:41).

7.  That there is no resurrection of the body: Unitarians, Quakers, Shakers, Churches of the New Jerusalem, Universalists, Russellites,  Christian Scientists, Modernists,  Dan. 12, 2; John 11, 24. 25;  Matt. 22, 31. 32;  I Cor. 15, 12.

8.  That before Judgment Day there will be a Millennium, during which the righteous shall reign for a thousand years with Christ upon earth:  Irvingites,  Adventists, Mormons, Russellites, Premillenarians in general,  (Dispensationalists).  John 5, 28. 29;  2 Thess. 1, 7;  Acts. 17, 31;  (Rev. 20:4).

XXVIII.  OF THE JUDGMENT

WE BELIEVE  (a) that on the last day Christ will come visibly to judge the quick and the dead; (b) that He will receive into glory all those who have believed in Him to the end:  (c) and that He will pronounce the eternal doom upon all who have refused to acknowledge Him as their Redeemer.

a)  Acts. 1, 11. This same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen Him go into heaven.

Acts 17, 31.  Because He hath appointed a day, in the which He will judge the world in righteousness by that man whom He hath ordained; whereof He hath given assurance unto all men, in that He hath raised Him from the dead.

Rom. 14, 10.  But why dost thou judge thy brother? or why dost thou set at naught thy brother? for we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ.

Cf.  also Matt. 25, 31-46.

b & c)  2 Cor. 5, 10.  For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad.

Matt. 25, 31-46  When the Son of man shall come in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then shall He sit upon the throne of His glory: and before Him shall be gathered all nations. and He shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

1.  That Christ will not return to judge the quick and the dead:  Church of the New Jerusalem, Shakers, Unitarians, Universalists, Christian Scientists, Modernists.  I Thess. 5, 1-3; Matt. 25, 31-46.

2.  That not all must appear before the judgment seat of Christ.  Seventh Day Adventists.  2 Cor. 5, 10; Rom. 14, 10.

3.  That the time of the Second Advent of Christ may be determined beforehand. Adventists, Russellites. Matt. 24,36; Luke 21, 34-36; Mark 13,32; 2 Pet.3, 10

4.  That before Judgment Day Christ will establish on earth the millennium:  Congregation Christians, Irvingites, Mormons, Adventists, Russellites, Premillenarians.  Luke 17, 20. 21; Rom. 14, 17; John 18, 36;  I Cor. 3, 21-23;  2 Tim. 4, 18; I Thess. 4, 16; John 14, 3;  Matt. 25, 31-46.

XXIX.  OF ETERNAL LIFE AND ETERNAL DAMNATION

WE BELIEVE (a) that as the life of the blessed is eternal, so (b) also the damnation of the unrighteous in hell is eternal.

a)  I Thess. 4, 16. 17.  For the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God:  and the dead in Christ shall rise first: then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.

Rev. 2, 10.  Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer:  behold, the devil shall cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried; and ye shall have tribulation ten days. be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life.

John 14, 2.  And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself, that where I am, there ye may be also.

—Cf. also Matt. 25, 31-46.

b)  2 Thess. 1, 7-10.  And to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, in flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of His power.  Cf. Matt. 25, 35-46.

WE REJECT  as unscriptural the following teachings:

1.  That all men inherit eternal salvation in heaven:  Unitarians, Modernists, Lodgery.  Heb. 4, 3. 9. 11; Mark 16, 16;  John 3, 18. 36.

2.  That the wicked will not suffer eternal damnation:  Universalists, Unitarians, Shakers, Mormons, Spiritists, Rationalists, Russellites, Seventh Day Adventists, Modernists.  2 Thess. 2, 7-10;  Isa. 16, 24;  Dan. 12, 2;  Matt. 25, 10; Matt. 25, 41;  Matt. 5, 26.

3.  That the wicked will be completely annihilated: Seventh Day Adventists, Russellites.  Rev. 14, 11; Rev. 21, 8; Matt. 25, 41;  Mark 9, 43-48.